When you think of the most dominant creatures on earth — what comes to mind? If considering sheer size, perhaps you immediately thought of the ocean — and the largest animal that’s ever lived — the blue whale. Or perhaps thinking of strength and ferocity, you imagined lush forests full of fearsome big cats. Or maybe, quite sensibly, you thought of us — human beings- the most intelligent, and one of the most widespread creatures on the planet. …

Last year a strange and unexpected sight, off the northern coast of Norway captured the world’s attention. A lone beluga whale wearing a tight harness, with the words “property of saint Petersburg” printed on it.

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Photo by Saanvi Vavilala on Unsplash

Belugas are normally found in icy and glacial areas, not along this part of the Norwegian coast and certainly not alone. …

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Photo by Om Malik on Unsplash

At first glance, the polar extremes of earth look completely inhospitable, but what should be an inhospitable place for mammals is instead full of them. The question is which forces drive them to survive there?

The last glacial period on earth began to fade around 11,000 years ago. The kilometers-thick ice-sheets that covered much of the earth started to recede, and the earth entered into the Holocene, the current geological epoch. But the once-mighty glaciers did not disappear entirely, and the extremes of our earth — the north and south poles — are the remnants of the last ice age.

Pretty much every single person who has ever had an injection of any sort has been protected because of this compound from this strange, ancient creature’s blood. Every year hundreds of thousands of horseshoe crabs arrive on the beaches of the Atlantic coast of America to lay their eggs. And every year, hundreds of thousands of horseshoe crabs are rounded up and brought to the lab — not to be killed, but for their blood to be carefully extracted. These animals, often called living fossils, are one of the ‘oldest’ creatures on the planet. They have remained nearly unchanged since…


Discovering and exploring my life.…I love to learn about the Who What Why Where When & How of everything and anything.

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