Nearly, half a billion years ago, the ocean was a simple ecosystem, full of reefs made by bacteria, and a gooey mat of microbes that covered the ocean floor. Creatures were simple, often amorphous. None were yet predatory. But within a few million years, this simple ecosystem would disappear, replaced by an ocean full of diverse, mobile, and highly effective animals.

The world’s first predators emerged during the Cambrian explosion, 540 million years ago, in the form of giant shrimp-like creatures like, Anomalocaris, which trapped its prey in its mouth lined with hooks, or the five-eyed Opabinia, which caught its…

For most of the 20th century, there existed a country called Yugoslavia. Today, however, it broke up into 6(+1) countries. But why?

(Attribution: United States Central Intelligence Agency, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons) MAP of Yugoslavia

Yugoslavia, for many, a long-forgotten failed nation. For others, an all-too painful, and recent, memory. A once-united federation made up of six neighboring republics, Yugoslavia’s existence was never a simple one. With constant ethnic and religious division, it seems that it was only a matter of time before a breakup would be imminent. But was that the only cause of Yugoslavia’s collapse? And how did the ethnic disputes actually lead to the destruction of an entire federation?

North America was one of the biggest Crown Jewels of the British Empire. So, how did and why did the British colonize America?

Photo by NASA on Unsplash — - MAP of United States of America

The history of the colonization of North America is one of the most well-known formations of any country across the globe. Spain, France, and Great Britain. All played crucial roles in the development of the influential, United States of America. But today most people particularly remember the colonial efforts of the English above all else. So how did the English colonize America?

To understand how it first behooves us to understand why? Well, a few factors were significant in determining the reason for England's colonial efforts. …

Imagine a world in which Woolly mammoth roam the plains of Siberia. Where dodos flock on the shores of Mauritius or where 12-foot tall Saber-toothed cats stroll through the woods of North America, well maybe no thanks to that last one. But a world in which extinct animals are brought back to life may not be limited to the imagination for much longer.

Photo by McGill Library on Unsplash — Dodo is an extinct flightless bird that was endemic to the island of Mauritius.

De-extinction is the process of bringing back to life an extinct animal species. It’s an idea that’s been around for a while but was perhaps fully propelled into the public consciousness by the 1993 film Jurassic Park

A list of the most influential people of all time wouldn’t be complete without Sir Isaac Newton. Newton’s laws are tied to almost everything we see in everyday life. They help us understand how cars work, how baseballs move, how anything moves.

Photo by ThisisEngineering RAEng on Unsplash

Yet there was a secret side to the 17th-century scientist which will become clear by the end of this story. By his mid-20s, Newton had already invented calculus. Not bad for the son of an illiterate farmer. …

In a year when a single virus has killed millions, it’s hard to think of viruses as anything other than bad, our understanding of them is largely based on the death and destruction they cause. HIV has caused the deaths of over 33 million people since the start of that epidemic in the 80s, the Ebola virus kills up to 90 percent of people who get infected with it in a gruesome and awful way, Polio still paralyzes people, Zika, Dengue, Yellow fever still ravage the tropics.

So, from where we’re standing it very much seems that viruses are not…

If the land can be owned — then it might seem obvious that if you own some land and build a house on it, then that house is your property. And if you plant a tree on your land, that tree is yours too. But when that tree drops a leaf, and the leaf falls to the ground, do you own the falling leaf? When you build a chimney in the air on top of your house, you own the chimney. So do you also own the smoke coming out? …

New Zealand: home of hobbits, mountains, and flightless birds. And no snakes. Even having snakes as pets is illegal in New Zealand. Despite being so close to Snake HQ (aka Australia), snakes are currently prohibited in the land of the long white cloud. But why? Let’s find out.

Photo by Hendrik Schlott on Unsplash

Before we can understand why snakes are illegal in New Zealand, we’ve got to know a bit about the history of snakes, and of the history of New Zealand’s islands. It can be difficult to say for certain things that happened millions of years ago.

But by using clues from fossils, understanding…

In 1959 the British Medical Journal reported on something that had never been seen before — several patients with a mysterious condition, something happening inside their blood that doctors didn’t think was possible.

Historically, we’ve understood our blood types to be a constant, immovable fact of our genetics and of our existence. But what these doctors found were several definitive cases of people with an A blood type, showing signs of their blood type changing, suddenly having red blood cells temporarily expressing the B blood type antigen. …

When you think of the most dominant creatures on earth — what comes to mind? If considering sheer size, perhaps you immediately thought of the ocean — and the largest animal that’s ever lived — the blue whale. Or perhaps thinking of strength and ferocity, you imagined lush forests full of fearsome big cats. Or maybe, quite sensibly, you thought of us — human beings- the most intelligent, and one of the most widespread creatures on the planet. …


Biology Undergrad. Fanatic about science, politics, sports, and Religion. Part-time writer. Ready to tackle life!

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